180 Years of atmospheric CO2 Gas Analysis by Chemical Methods – Support

180 Years of atmospheric CO2 Gas Analysis by Chemical Methods – Support

StD Ernst-Georg Beck, Dipl. Biol. 2006/2007
email: egbeck@biokurs.de

Merian-Schule Freiburg; Dep. Biotechnology and Nutrition Science
79104 Freiburg, Rheinstr. 3, Germany


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180 Years of atmospheric CO 2 Gas Analysis by Chemical Methods


Part 4 of projected monograph “History of CO 2 Gas Analysis of Air by Chemical Methods”

uncorrected, unfinished, not authorized for publication, only for evaluation

Bibliographies historic measurements
Historic papers (CO2 peak 1942) Data – Methods
W. Kreutz 1939 Spezialinstrumente… (weather station Giessen)
Weather Station at Giessen with possible anthropogenic sources
Mining activities in Hessen -1940: total mapmap eastmap west
Bazett (1941) 400 ppm Philadelphia
Historic Papers CO2: 1900 – 1927, Data – Methods
Historic Papers CO2: 19th Century, Data – Methods
C.E. Brunner , Journ. de Pharm, 18, 1832; drying air with H2SO4
C.E. Brunner ” Annales de chimie et de physique 1841 (3e série / Tome 3). P. 305, Gasanalyser end of journal; drying air by H2SO4 p312

H. Hlasiwetz (1856) ” Über Kohlensäurebestimmungen der atmosphärischen Luft”
H2SO4 absorbs CO2: p.193 ; discussion of erroneous methods

Regnault 1871 drying air by H2SO4

Annales de chimie et de physique, 1871 (4e série / Tome 24). p.257-258
Evaluation of historic papers on CO2: Callendar – Keeling etc.

Callendar (1958) “On the amount of CO2 in the Atmosphere”

See Callendars rejection of inaccurate values concerning free air p. 244 a) and d):

CO2 values are inaccurate when: ” period mean values 10% or more different from general average of time and region” or

“by measurements intended for special purpose such as biological, soil air, atmospheric pollution etc.”

Callendar (1940) “Variations of the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in Different Air Currents” (*.doc)

Keeling: 1986 Reassessment of late 19th Century atmospheric carbon dioxide variations…..(zip)

See Keelings discussion of low values of Reiset and Muentz p. 88

Keeling p 91: “Muentz & Aubin rivaled Reiset at professing to be among the most careful of the 19th century investigators of CO2” He had not investigated many others!

Keeling p. 103: “…Reiset…and his results show no abnormally low concentrations suggestive of incomplete absorption.” Wrong: He used H2SO4 for drying the air before absorption, and H2SO4 absorbs a considerable fraction of CO2, so his values are systematicly too low. Keeling was chemist! ( See Reisets article of 1880: Compt. Rend. 90, 1880, p. 1145) above.

Keeling Speech 1993, Winner second blue Planet Prize

Historic Gasanalyzers – Methods

Pettenkofers Respirationsapparat 1866

Pettenkofer process and its variants
Petermann 1889 (french)
Description of Pettenkofer process in Abderhalden, Handbook of biochemical methods 1920

Biographies of famous scientists involved in CO2 gas analysis

Thénard, Louis J., 1777-1857 French chemist , wrote first textbook of chemistry
NICOLAS THÉODORE DE SAUSSURE: 1767 –1845 swiss chemist, founder of plant physiology

Henri Victor Regnault 1810 –1878, French chemist and physicist,Thermodynamics

Modern measurements
Compiled data of historic measurements – EXCEL
Background approximation: Kreutz(1939)Steinhauser (1957) Diekirch_Lux(2005)
Historic chemical data fit with modern ice core records (Antarctica)
-Schneider et al. 2006 – Beck 2007-
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